Le Rwanda

Que faire face à un régime qui ne supporte guère la critique. Les tuiles coûtent de plus en plus cher depuis que les fours artisanaux ont été bannis, bien trop polluants. Le prix des terrains constructibles grimpe de façon vertigineuse, et les maisons doivent respecter une taille minimale.

CONGO. LULINGU, SOUTH KIVU. January 17, 2014. This woman’s husband was killed, along with her son-in-law, by the Interahamwe. She and her daughter were then left to care for their children. The Interahamwe is a faction of the better-known Democratic Forces for the Liberation of Rwanda (FDLR) that has been living in the jungles of eastern Congo since the genocide of 1994. The FDLR was formed by the military officials of the former Rwandan government, the overthrow of which is often cited as the start of the genocide of 1994. The Interahamwe, on the other hand, is made up of the former Hutu-led youth militias who committed the majority of the atrocities of the genocide. The Colonel of the soldier pictured identified his group as the FDLR; however villagers nearby, which include soldiers from the Colonel’s troops, stated that they had operated in the Lulingu area during the same time period in which, according to the Raia Mutomoboki, the Interhamwe arrived to Congo.

CENTRAL AFRICAN REPUBLIC. BANGUI. March 21, 2014. An Anti-Balaka fighter in a neighborhood with many Anti-Balaka fighters. The neighborhood had been purged of Muslims.

CONGO. LULINGU, SOUTH KIVU. December 27, 2013. “Our movement says no to the occupation of our country by foreigners,” declared General Kikuni in an interview in Lulingu. “We are a popular defense movement,” he explained, adding that his group was formed in response to the government’s call for their action.  In a town hall meeting in July 2011, the Governor of South Kivu province, when questioned about the withdrawal of FARDC troops from the area, infamously stated, “Liberate yourselves!” Kikuni is from a nearby village, called Nduma, which serves as the group’s headquarters. He is a lawyer by training and has led the faction since the Congolese army captured its previous General, Eyedema Mugugu, in June 2012. Eyedema remains imprisoned in Kinshasa.
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CONGO. LULINGU, SOUTH KIVU. December 27, 2013. A Raia Mutomboki fighter slaughters a sheep for General Kikuni. The Raia Mutomboki soldiers claim that enlistment into their armed group is voluntarily. They receive no pay for their service, their survival often depending on working in the mining industry or trapping wild animals. Their ranks include women and minors, both of whom insist they have the right to defend themselves.  Many of the soldiers have lost family members in massacres committed by the Interahamwe or in subsequent fighting with the FARDC. In the words of one Raia Mutomboki fighter, “My vision isn’t to be a soldier.  It is just to protect ourselves.” A FARDC official in Bukavu, however, told a different story. “The two children just escaped,” he said, pointing to a photograph of two young boys. “The Raia Mutomboki had forced these minors to become soldiers.”

CONGO. 2013.

CONGO. Numbi, South Kivu. March 29, 2013. A worker at a hotel in the mining town of Numbi, located in South Kivu province.

Africa. Rwanda. 2014. Kiki Katese lost her family during the genocide when around one million people died. In theaftermath, she was determined to help survivorsdeal with the trauma. So, she started the first all-women drumming group, where tribal allegiance is left at the door and women stand proudly together.

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